Wednesday, June 24, 2009

ELECTRIC VEHICLES PRIMER

JASON JUNGREIS

Vice President of San Francisco Electric Vehicle Association
Volunteer for Plug In America

For questions regarding this post, cleantech issues, or other legal services, please visit my website: JungreisLaw.com



ELECTRIC VEHICLES

1. How they work
2. Why they're better
3. Getting one



EV BASIC PARTS

1. Motor
2. Battery
3. Battery Management System
4. Controller
5. Charger

No gas tank, engine, transmission.

For frame of reference, the total propulsion system weight of an electric car with a 100 mile range is the same as the total propulsion system weight of a gas car (approx. 750 pounds).



ELECTRICAL POWER

Power: amount of force needed to do something
example: lighting an incandescent lightbulb -- 100 Watts
EV power is stated in kilowatts -- KW (1 KW = 1000 watts)

1 KW = 1.3 horsepower
EV Example: in describing maximum power, a rating might say battery can put out 100 KW power, or a motor can put out 100 KW power.

Frames of reference:
An efficient vehicle (ex: Prius) might require 10KW to go 60 mph down a level highway.
An efficient vehicle might require 100KW to accelerate to highway speed.

The higher the voltage, the more efficient and the more power.
Typical systems are over 300 volts.



ELECTRICAL ENERGY

Energy: the amount of stored power

Energy is stated in kilowatt-hours -- KWH

EV Example: the size of a battery pack might be described as 16 KWH

An efficient EV can go 4 miles on 1 KWH

BUT: for battery health and longevity, most batteries should not be fully charged or drained -- many battery management systems charge to around 80% and drain down to around 20%.

Chevy Volt: only intended to use about 10 of 16KWH
(helps ensure its ability to go 10 years / 150,000 miles, which is required for emissions control)



HYBRIDS

Hybrid types:
Parallel -- combining engine power and motor power
Serial -- motor powers the car, engine powers the motor
Through-The-Road -- engine powers 1 axle, motor powers 1 axle

Mild Hybrid (Parallel):
Chevy Malibu -- 5KW Belt Alternator System +4 MPG (26 v. 30) 15% more efficient

Honda Civic -- 15KW Integrated Motor Assist +11 MPG (31 v. 42) 30% more efficient
But, the Civic Hybrid is really much slower than a regular Civic, so not a fair comparison

Strong Hybrid (Parallel):
Ford Fusion -- Battery: 1.3KWH Motor: 93KW +13 MPG (25 v. 38) 50% more efficient

Plug-In Hybrid (Serial):
Chevy Volt -- Battery: 16KWH Motor: 120KW Engine: 75KW
MPG? First 40 miles electric, then around 50 mpg
Once battery depleted, engine generates electricity for motor: engine does not charge battery.



EV EFFICIENCY

Electrical powertrain more efficient than ICE
ICE: 20-40% v. EV: 85-95%

EVs use energy more efficiently:
1. No idling
2. Regenerative braking
3. More efficient accessories

Also:
1. Fewer moving parts
2. Reduced maintenance
3. Quiet ride

Example:
Tesla Roadster -- 375 Volt, 185KW AC Induction motor, 53KWH battery



EV MOTORS

Electric Motors are very torquey from 0 rpm, have a broad powerband, don't need transmission

Brushed DC -- cheap, efficient, but peaky.
Ex: home conversions

Permanent Magnet Synchronous -- a bit less efficient and powerful, but smoother (but more complex controller).
Ex: Prius

AC Induction -- compact but powerful, a bit less efficient, may require cooling.
Ex: Tesla

Switched reluctance? Cheap, runs cool, but requires complex controller -- not yet used.




EV BATTERY

Lithium Ion / Lithium Polymer - in all their variations!

There are various chemistries for anodes and cathodes.

generally, around 100wh/kg (1KWH = approx. 25 pounds)
Volt = 10 pounds of batteries per mile (40 miles, 400lbs.)
Tesla = 5 pounds of batteries per mile (225 miles, 1000lbs.)
(Tesla uses 6831 small lithium-cobalt batteries, which tolerate more complete charging and draining)

Zinc batteries for fleets? Once use has begun, must continue to be used or will discharge; run hot.

For frame of reference, typical car requires 1/4 pound of gasoline to go a mile.



MPGe: "MILES PER GALLON EQUIVALENT" / "YOUR MILEAGE MAY VARY"

No set definition of MPGe

"Well to Wheel efficiency" -- another tricky term

Efficient use of electricity depends upon many factors:
1. fuel type, location
2. power plant efficiency
3. transmission losses, EV charging, battery, controller, and motor efficiency

EPA MPG v. 'Real World' variables:
1. heat, AC
2. highway
3. motor-only acceleration
4. regenerative-braking
5. "hypermiling"

generalization: careful hybrid drivers get better mileage then EPA estimates



ENERGY NEEDS AND POLLUTION INCREASE WITH POPULATION

Human population: 1.5 billion a hundred years ago; 7 billion today; 10 billion by 2050

By 2050, world energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions will each increase over 50%



WHERE DOES ELECTRICITY COME FROM

Gasoline and diesel are dirty fossil fuels!

And electricity?
1. dirty fossil fuel -- coal
2. cleaner fossil fuel -- natural gas
3. potentially dangerous -- nuclear
4. clean or renewable -- wind, solar, wave, geothermal, biomass --
total about 2% of U.S. electrical generation



GREENHOUSE GASES

For hundreds of thousands of years, carbon dioxide concentration 280-300 parts per million

Today, carbon dioxide concentration above 390 parts per million

By 2040, carbon dioxide concentration set to go to 500 parts per million

To reduce carbon dioxide concentration to 2000 level, all new vehicles must reduce CO2 emissions by 70-90%



U.S. GRID CAN HANDLE EVs

Existing off-peak electrical capacity could provide enough electricity to power the daily commutes of 3/4 of all U.S. vehicles.

Powering vehicles through generated electricity offers better emission controls, because a few thousand power plants are easier to regulate than hundreds of millions of vehicle tailpipes.

Use of EVs would move emissions away from population centers.

As the electrical grid gets cleaner, EVs get cleaner.

The future: More power from solar, wind, geothermal, biomass.

EPA increasing required efficiency from 27 to 39 MPG for cars and from 23 to 30 MPG for light trucks by 2016: the cars presently meeting these standards are hybrids. Therefore, of necessity many vehicles will soon become hybrids.



CHARGING NETWORK CONCEPT

Install charging network in homes and along major roads, highway service areas, super markets, office parking garages, malls, restaurants, and parking lots.



VEHICLE TO GRID (V2G)

Average car driven 3 hours, parked 21 hours

1 million V2G EVs = 20 average power plants

Peak solar power fed into cars, later tapped for peak load

Allows a doubling of our harvesting of wind power

Managed by Smart Grid Demand Response



CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD (CARB)

Requiring a minimum of 5,357 zero-emission vehicles and 58,333 plug-in hybrids in 2012-2014

National Emissions Standards adopting California's stringent emissions requirements



STIMULUS FINANCING

Emergency Economic Stabilization Act

Tax credits for first 200,000 plug-in vehicles per manufacturer:
$2,500 if at least 4 kWh of batteries
+ $417 each additional kWh, up to:
$7,500 if vehicle weighs up to 10,000 lbs.
$10,000 weights 10,000-14,000 lbs.
$12,500 weight 14,000-26,000 lbs.
$15,000 vehicles over 26,000 lbs.

Result: 16KWH battery yields maximum $7,500

(Coincidence: Chevy Volt has 16KWH battery)



HYBRID CARS

Audi: 2012 small car

Ford: Escape, et al ; Fusion, et al

GM: rear wheel drive SUVs
2010 small SUVs, large cars
2011? small cars

Honda: Insight (big-mild design)

Hyundai: 2010? small car

Lexus: bigger vehicles

Mercedes: bigger vehicles

Nissan: Altima

Peugeot: 2012 small car (diesel?)

Porsche: Cayenne (big-mild design)

Toyota: Camry, Highlander, Prius (all cars by 2015)

Volkswagon: 2012 small car

Volvo: 2012 medium car



PLUG-IN HYBRID CARS

BYD: 2011 small car

GM: 2011 Volt approx. $33,000 (post-credit)

Fisker: 2011 sport sedan

Ford: 2011 Escape (limited)

Toyota: 2011 Prius (fleet)



ELECTRIC CARS

Better Place: 2011 small car - 100 mile range (battery swap)

BYD: 2011 small car - 200 mile range (?)

Coda: 2010 compact car - 120 miles range, 0-60 in 10 seconds, approx. $33,000 (post-credit)

Ford: 2011 Transit van - 100 mile range

2011 Focus small car - 100 mile range

Mini: 2009 - 80 mile range (limited)

Mitsubishi: 2011 iMiEV small car - 75 mile range (fleet)

Nissan: 2011 compact car - 80 mile range, approx. $33,000 (post-credit)

Smart: 2010 - 100 mile range (limited)

Subaru: 2010 R1E minicar - 50 mile range

Tesla: Roadster - 225 mile range (sports car)
2011 Model S sport sedan - 160-300 mile range approx. $50,000 (post-credit)

Think: 2010 minicar - 100 mile range, 60mph

(and various other limited efforts from small manufacturers)

For regularly-updated information, go to http://www.pluginamerica.org/plug-in-vehicle-tracker.html


CONVERSION

Kits exist, and excellent books and website information

Garages and some companies will do it for you

Cost: DIY -- $10,000- $20,000
garage -- $25,000 - $40,000



OTHER VEHICLES

Three-wheel vehicles

Neighborhood electric vehicles

Electric motorcycles -- $7000, 40mile range, 60mph



COST OF EV OWNERSHIP

Basic 100-mile range EV: $33,000 (after fed tax credit)

Cost of electricity per mile: base rate $.12/KW, so around $.03/mile

But: If you drive 50 miles a day, install a 2KW photovoltaic system for $10,000 (after credits), and use net metering and PG&E rate plan -- then, YOU DRIVE FOR FREE after $43,000 investment.



DON'T LET THE PERFECT BE THE ENEMY OF THE GOOD

I strongly encourage development and sales and widespread use of the whole range of hybrids, PHEVs, and EVs. Nonetheless, consider the following: if we all drove 50MPG Priuses (Prii?), which gets about twice the present national fleet average, then given that cars use about half of all our oil and that we import about half of our oil, therefore we could stop importing oil. Based on 2008, we'd save $700,000,000,000, save on our geo-political military budget and blood, greatly weaken oil-fed terrorism and totalitarian regimes, save our lungs from pollution, significantly reduce global warming.

If we moved as quickly as possible toward broad adoption of EVs, we'd save all this and also employ Americans, improve our goods trade imbalance, and help our fiscal strength by developing a new export economy.

Whether Priuses or pure EVs or something in between, the certain reality is that the status quo must be changed as quickly as possible.



INFORMATIVE WEBSITES

http://www.jungreislaw.com/

http://www.sfeva.org/

http://www.pluginamerica.org/

http://www.calcars.org/

http://www.electricdrive.org/

http://www.autobloggreen.com/

http://www.hybridcars.com/

http://www.greencarcongress.com/

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